® [1]
The ARC Triangle

Scientology's various triangles employ a particular mechanism which is contained within the meaning of the triangle itself. In the ARC triangle, for example, when one raises the Affinity for a person or thing, the shared Reality and Communication level also increase. Similarly, if one alters Reality, or Communication, the remaining aspects of the triangle will alter commensurately. This same mechanism is contained within Rosicrucian philosophy; it is known as the philosophical triangle.

The philosophical mind will accept the law of the triangle. Each of us demonstrates this law in various ways in our daily lives. We know, for example, that every effect is dependent upon two points of the triangle. There are two causes, as we may call them one active and one relatively passive. We speak of the third point of the triangle as being the point of manifestation. When there is any change in the unity of these two points or if they are separated, then the effect which followed from the unity is either changed or it ceases to be.[2]

--Ralph M. Lewis, F.R.C.

Analyzing Hubbard's theories against Aleister Crowley's maxim "Love is the law. Love under will," we will find the secret of the communication skills taught in Scientology.

In a lecture called Love given in Wichita, Kansas on 5 November 1951, Hubbard ® traced the evolutionary origins of mankind back to the clam or mollusk. He taught that the earliest precursor to love arose from the necessity for the two parts of a bivalve organism to cooperate in order to survive. By endocrinological means, the strongest of two control centers in the clam forced cooperation with its other half.

As our seafood ancestors developed and became more self-determined, they learned to control others through transferring and associating thoughts in the form of mental facsimiles. But, because the other person is part of the same "unit," the mental images that the controlling party tries to transfer to the other person can backfire. The person attempting to be in control experiences the effect of the thoughtform he wanted the other person to have.

What you would like to do to others is what is wrong with you. This is interpersonal relations.

Now we take love: there is no difference. An individual comes along and he says, "I'm in love. There have to be future generations. Two can live more cheaply than one," and other propaganda. Now he gets anxious about whether or not he will be cooperated with. What has he asked for? He has asked another human being for the maximum amount of cooperation in living a life. And he knows instinctively it can't succeed unless they have cooperative action, a similarity of goals, a similarity of operation, a similarity of likes and dislikes. He is anxious about this, and when he finds out that the human being upon whom he has fastened his endearment is not the person, exactly, with which to accomplish this duo, he starts this operation of forcing the other individual to be. Jealousy, anxiety and all manner of things will set in then, because the individual is trying an impossibility, actually. If it succeeds, it is lots of fun, but don't forget to sweep it up afterwards. You are asking for another human being to either cooperate perfectly with you or be dominated utterly by you--one or the other. And any mechanism you use to accomplish this high degree of similarity is going to come back and kick you in the teeth. [3]

--L. Ron Hubbard ®

Hubbard said it was unfortunate that interpersonal relationships demand a certain degree of affinity, reality and communication between members. Human affinity ("love") is a genetic endocrine mechanism that magnetizes and binds the parts of the group into a single unit. The group agrees to a common goal and methods for survival as a group. These shared agreements form the group's reality. Communication has to occur between members in order to proceed toward the common goal. Affinity, reality and communication culminate in understanding.

Affinity is experienced as emotional response. (This goes back to the endocrine action of the clam.) Hubbard's emotional tone scale is a list of emotions given in descending order of vibration. Each listed emotion has a numeric value. At the top of the scale at 40.0 is "Serenity of Beingness." At the bottom of the scale is "Total Failure" at -40.0. The scale reverses polarity at the emotion of 2.0--"Antagonism." Hubbard assigned anything below 2.0 (antagonism) as negative emotion arising from the reactive mind. Emotions above 2.0 increase in positive vibration--the further up the tone scale, the greater the viability of the person and of his capacity to survive.

Hubbard gave that one's intention becomes more effective as one ascends emotionally to the upper end of the scale. At the level of Tone 40, A-R-C ceases to be a working mechanism. Here is pure will, defined in Scientology as "Intention without reservation." Whereas lower on the scale is found some semblance of affinity, the distinguishing factor of Tone 40 is its unmitigated command value.

Hubbard taught that "human love" manifests at all levels of the emotional scale, and that what passes for love can be plotted against this scale. Scientology teaches how to manipulate the emotional response in others for the purpose of accomplishing one's will. Using this scale, the Scientologist first learns to instantly identify the exact emotions manifesting in others in his environment. Once the Scientologist identifies the emotional state of his target, the Scientologist then consciously synthesizes an emotional vibration or affinity that is compatible with his target's emotion. This synthesized emotion is the carrier wave or vibration with which the Scientologist communicates to the target.

Hubbard taught seemingly paradoxical ideas of reality. However, in examining his doctrine on this subject, we see that his "reality" doctrine follows a similar line as affinity. On one hand, reality is what is commonly agreed upon--it is the "mass" of the situation. On the other hand, the way to spiritual freedom is by disagreeing with the physical universe. Hubbard taught that "Reality is proportional to charge off the case." What this really means is that the more auditing and training that Scientologists receive, the more they agree with Hubbard's doctrine, and the less likely they will agree with opposing "physically-oriented" views. This works out administratively as well; those in senior positions always have the edge "reality-wise" over those in junior positions. Hubbard's training measures include how to evaluate the reality of the targeted individual, and how to bend that reality.

The Scientologist learns to communicate within the reality of the target in order to achieve the Scientologist's intention for that target. The Scientologist finds something with which the target will agree, thus forming the basis of a common reality. Using the synthesized carrier wave of affinity, the Scientologist impels his thought across this carrier wave, usually in the form of a verbalized thoughtform. Success in communication is measured by the degree of duplication in the target of the original thoughtform.[4] Hubbard taught that the most important part of the ARC triangle is the communication factor. The important thing is to get a duplication of the thoughtform embedded in and accepted by the target.

Hubbard's message to Scientologists is that the emotions one experiences as a human are inferior emotions, and that one can create create emotions to order. To the degree that one can synthesize emotions, the person is causative in life. Conversely, those who manifest "human" emotions are easily susceptible of control by Scientologists.

One application of Hubbard's "doctrine" is found in the Dissemination Drill, Scientology's recipe for recruiting new Scientologists. Here the non-Scientologist is approached and in the course of a seemingly normal conversation, the Scientologist uses the ARC triangle and tone scale to engage the person into a discussion of his problems and difficulties. The Scientologist's task is to find something that is "ruining" the person's life. The new person sees the Scientologist as someone who is "on his wavelength," someone who understands and is really "interested" in listening to his troubles. In reality, the Scientologist is looking for a psychological complex that he can activate in conversing with the new person. Once the person has confided about something that is really bothering him, the Scientologist, maintains his level of "understanding" and simply takes the person to the nearest Scientology ® organization to pay for a Scientology service that will supposedly "solve" the person's activated complex. The new person has no idea that he has been manipulated into Scientology using the unconscious energy from his own complexes. The Scientologist is praised and financially rewarded for his effective application of Hubbard's technology to help "free another being."

Another aspect of Hubbard's ARC doctrine is found in Scientology's "Code of Honor." Hubbard knew that his success as a "religious leader" depended upon continued loyalty of his subjects. He knew that programming could be disturbed if the unconscious control he commanded over Scientologists' minds was disrupted by outside sources of affinity. He taught Scientologists to dish out affinity, reality and communication but to never expect it back: "Do not desire to be liked or admired." Once Scientologists had become convinced of the superiority of Hubbard's doctrine through training and auditing, Hubbard could expect that Scientologists would identify their reality with his. "Never compromise with your own reality" translates to: "Don't listen or agree with anyone but me." The same rule applies to "Do not give or receive communication unless you yourself desire it." Scientology ethics handling often includes the order to write up one's transgressions against this "Code of Honor." Within the context of the duress and coercion of a Scientology ethics environment, "Code of Honor" violations are always evaluated against Hubbard's ideals. Hubbard's ethics measures invariably employ the concept of recovering affinities that outside sources have disrupted.

Scientologists use Hubbard's methods to control each other and their non-Scientology associates, familial connections and everyone in their environment by intentionally manipulating their emotions. This is all justified under the heading of being a good Scientologist and "applying the tech." Scientologists see nothing wrong whatsoever about controlling the thoughts and actions of others in this way. Rather, they learn that non-Scientologists and those not actively moving on Hubbard's Bridge are operating at the dictates of their reactive minds and literally have no right to their own privacy. For Scientologists, there is nothing more virtuous than "applying the tech" to guide these souls into Scientology and further up the Bridge.

Hubbard taught that ARC culminates in "Understanding," and that the appropriate way to increase understanding is through the use of the ARC triangle. What gets missed constantly by Scientologists is that the "understanding" they propagate is simply Hubbard's understanding. The trick in communication skills is to originate communication "as though" it was their own. Scientologists are trained to "own" the tech--Hubbard's training methods carefully instill his doctrine and practical applications so as to establish the primary template of the Scientologist's analytical processes.

Hubbard's interpretation and application of Love under Will, is the controlled use of the ARC triangle to execute intention. Scientologists don't realize that they are themselves being manipulated and used to further Hubbard's own ends, and now, the ends of upper management.


Hubbard's basic doctrine on ARC and the emotional tone scale came ready-made into Scientology. The essential text on this technology was published in 1951, under the title of Science of Survival. This is the basic text in use today. It includes a comprehensive psychological profile for each of the human emotions, and is the basis for psychological evaluation in Scientology processing and for use by Scientologists in their interpersonal relations.

Though I have not located the actual source of the material contained in Science of Survival, it would be literally impossible for a layperson (as Hubbard was) to test and develop the subject in any scientific setting, as he claimed. Other critical researchers have very adequately documented Hubbard's background and activities prior to the launching of Dianetics ® and Scientology in 1950. Questions as to its scientific merit aside, Hubbard did not have the time, credentials or resources necessary to originate such a work. That Hubbard was able to convince his members of his authorship is simply evidence of his charismatic and manipulative personality--characteristics which were commented upon by others with whom he associated prior to 1950.

One very well documented example of Hubbard's facility with this "technology" is contained within correspondence between Jack Parsons and Aleister Crowley in 1946. Parsons, the head of the Agape Lodge of the Ordo Templi Orientis, wrote to Crowley about Hubbard, stating he was the most "thelemic" (exercised the most will) person he had ever met. Parsons was obviously familiar with the psychological phenomenon called transference, which is the term used to describe the transferring of unconscious affinity. He wrote to Crowley about how Hubbard stole Parson's girlfriend, saying:

"Most Beloved Father,
About three months ago, I met Capt. L. Ron Hubbard, a writer and explorer of whom I had known for some time...He is a gentleman; he has red hair, green eyes, is honest and intelligent, and we have become great friends. He moved in with me about two months ago, and although Betty [Parson's girlfriend] and I are still friendly, she has transferred <emphasis added> her sexual affections to him.[...]" [5]

--Jack Parsons
(Sex and Rockets The Occult World of Jack Parsons)

Though Parsons was privately devastated over this turn of events, he continued to associate closely with Hubbard and eventually partnered with him in a set of advanced magic rituals called "The Babalon Working." In order for Hubbard to perform these rituals with Parsons, it would have been absolutely necessary for Parsons to give Hubbard access to advanced OTO secrets. Apparently, Hubbard got away with this too. Crowley, unlike Parsons, was not fooled by Hubbard; in a letter to another OTO member in discussing Parson's victimization, Crowley characterized Hubbard's activity as "an ordinary confidence trick."

Following the Babalon Working, Hubbard, Parsons and "Betty" (her real name was Sara Northrup) formed a company which Parsons funded. Hubbard and Betty made off with Parsons money, which he was only able to recover partially, by means of a lawsuit against Hubbard. Five weeks after the lawsuit, Parsons resigned his position with the OTO, gave up magick, and focused on his career at Jet Propulsion Labs. However, in May, 1948, he was stripped of his security clearance at JPL because of a report and investigation into his previous "subversive activitives in a religious cult."

Was Hubbard the source of the report that instigated the investigation and eventual defrocking of Parsons? Scientology promotes that Hubbard was sent in by navy intelligence to break up black magic in California. While it may have been true that Hubbard eventually reported on Parsons to the authorities, the obvious question remains as to why Hubbard in his "undercover operation" found it necessary to steal Parsons' girlfriend and his money, and actively perform an advanced black magic working in order to fulfill his duty to the navy. The question also remains as to why Parsons was defrocked by JPL well over a year after he had resigned his position within the OTO, and had moved from his house that had doubled as the Agape Lodge.

After Hubbard and Parsons parted ways, Hubbard married Betty bigamously (he was still married to his first wife, Polly.) In 1947 Hubbard completed a book with the original title of Scientology: A New Science. In January 1948, he published and promoted this book to psychiatrists under the title Abnormal Dianetics. In the book's Introduction, Hubbard said it had been written over the three previous years. (The same book received two subsequent titles: Dianetics: The Original Thesis and The Dynamics of Life.) The start of the writing project would have roughly coincided with the time Hubbard began his association with Parsons. The book was released approximately 3 months before the completion of the FBI investigation leading to Jack's dismissal from JPL. During that time, Hubbard was aggressively seeking credibility with the psychiatric community. Was the FBI's investigation instigated by Hubbard in effort to distance himself from his nefarious past?

Ten years earlier, Hubbard had employed a similar measure to discredit a steward of a hotel. He informed the FBI of this "Nazi," giving no details as to how he had come to this assessment. By the time of the FBI's response, however, Hubbard had moved with no forwarding address.

Hubbard apparently continued to use similar tactics to remove obstacles in the way of his newfound success with Dianetics and Scientology. In an overwhelmingly chaotic flurry of events in 1951, Hubbard rid himself of various personnel he no longer wished to have around by reporting on their "communist activities" to the FBI. At the top of Hubbard's list of suspected communists, he named his (by then estranged) wife, Sara Northrup. At the time of these reports to the FBI, Hubbard was concerned that Sara was plotting to have him committed as a paranoid schizophrenic. He had just finished Science of Survival, and was having an affair with Barbara Kaye, his public relations assistant. Kaye, who later became a psychologist, concluded that Hubbard deserved the diagnosis.[6]

As mentioned earlier, Hubbard's ARC triangle has the same properties as the Rosicrucian philosophical triangle. In an interview Jon Atack had with an anonymous 13 degree Rosicrucian, he learned of complaints by the Rosicrucians that Hubbard had incorporated some of their teachings into Scientology. [7] Did Hubbard publish those teachings as Science of Survival?

The Temple of Set teaches a similar (although apparently less sophisticated) means of emotional manipulation. They give it the more honest title of "lesser black magick" and refer to it as "rapport." [8]

The manipulation of "love" was taught by Aleister Crowley's mentor, Eliphas Levi. Levi's translations of earlier occult manuscripts are foundational works for much of modern Western Hermeticism.

When the magnetic atmosphere of two persons is so equilibrated that the attractive faculty of one draws the expansive faculty of the other, a tendency is produced which is termed sympathy; then imagination, calling up to it all the rays or refletions analogous to that which it experiences, makes a poem of the desires which captivate the will, and if the persons differ in sex, it occasions in them, or more commonly in the weaker of the two, a complete intoxication of the astral light, which is termed passion par excellence, or love. Love is one of the great instruments of magical power, but it is categorically forbidden to the magus, at least as an intoxication or passion. [9]

--Eliphas Levi

Hubbard wrote instructions on sympathy into the Auditor's Code: "I promise not to sympathize with the preclear but to be effective." He did not wish Scientologists undergoing "therapy" to transfer their affinities to the auditor--that would have destroyed Hubbard's intention to redirect preclears' affinities to Hubbard himself. Auditors are trained with the viewpoint that their job is strictly and entirely the application of Hubbard's technology, as though Hubbard himself was auditing the preclear.

Scientology's Basic Ritual

In a 1952 Philadelphia Doctorate Course lecture called Conditions of Space/Time/Energy, Hubbard discussed how above 40.0 (Serenity of Beingness) on Scientology's emotional tone scale, there exists intention at will. At this state, the individual would just postulate an action or an object and his intention would manifest effortlessly. By degrading himself over time, the individual reduced his postulate down to a mechanical automaticity where he (incorrectly) felt the need to employ a cycle of action to get what he wanted. He then makes the comment:

…A magician--the magic cults of the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth centuries in the Middle East were fascinating. The only modern work that has anything to do with them is a trifle wild in spots, but it's fascinating work in itself, and that's work written by Aleister Crowley, the late Aleister Crowley, my very good friend. And he did himself a splendid piece of aesthetics built around those magic cults. It's very interesting reading to get a hold of a copy of a book, quite rare, but it can be obtained, The Master Therion, T-h-e-r-i-o-n, The Master Therion by Aleister Crowley. He signs himself "The Beast"; "The Mark of the Beast, 666." Very, very something or other.

But anyway, the--Crowley exhumed a lot of the data from these old magic cults. And he, as a matter of fact handles cause and effect quite a bit. Cause and effect is handled according to a ritual. And it's interesting that whenever you have any of these things you can assign a ritual to it and that ritual is what you do in order to accomplish this or how you have to go through and how many motions you have to make to come into the ownership of that. And that's a ritual.[10]

--L. Ron Hubbard

Hubbard did not entirely sanitize his teachings on communication and ARC. He defined communication as "any RITUAL <sic> by which effects can be produced and perceived." [11] Hubbard named the first of his "Basic Auditing Series" bulletins, "The Magic of The Communication Cycle." In that issue, Hubbard said, "The magic involved in auditing is contained in the communication cycle of auditing."[12] Although Hubbard did not overtly disclose the true nature of his "magic" in that issue, the psychological methods he trained auditors to utilize in addressing cases has to do with the manipulation of unconscious affinities to facilitate the ends of Scientology.
See Scientology: Soul Hackers for a discussion relating to transference.

[1] Modified from line drawing in Modern Management Technology Defined © 1976 L. Ron Hubbard

[2] Lewis, Ralph, The Conscious Interlude © 1957 Supreme Grand Lodge of AMORC, Inc.

See also: Transcendental Magic Its Doctrine and Ritual (1910) by Eliphas Levi, Chapter The Triangle of Solomon

[3] Hubbard, L. Ron, Professional Lecture November 5 1951 Love; Restoring The Ability to Love © Unknown

[4] See: Journal of Scientology January 1954 SOP-8C The Rehabilitation of the Human Spirit

[5] Carter, John, Sex and Rockets The Occult World of Jack Parsons © 2000 John Carter and Feral House
Note: Hubbard was never a Captain, as Parsons relayed to Crowley--this was simply evidence of Hubbard's propensity to fabricate his own past. See Ron the War Hero by Chris Owen

[6] 1940 FBI file: http://www.xenu.net/archive/FBI/fbi-1.html
1951 FBI file: http://www.xenu.net/archive/FBI/fbi-89.html
List of FBI documents on Hubbard: http://www.xenu.net/archive/FBI/table.html
Narrative re: events of 1951: Miller, Russell Barefaced Messiah

[7] http://www.b-org.demon.nl/scn/roots/hubbard-and-the-occult1.html

[8] http://www.churchofsatan.org/setnakt8.html

[9] Levi, Eliphas Transcendental Magic Its Doctrine and Ritual (1910) ISBN 0-7661-0297-1

[10] Hubbard, L. Ron PDC Lecture 18 Conditions of Space/Time/Energy 5 December 1952 © 1986 by L. Ron Hubbard
Note how Hubbard transposed Space, Time and Energy--was this a weak attempt to hide his doctrine on SET--Space, Energy, Time?

[11] Hubbard, L. Ron My Going Away Present ca 1952 © 1991 L. Ron Hubbard Library

[12] Hubbard, L. Ron Basic Auditing Series 1R HCOB 23 May 1971R The Magic of the Communication Cycle © 1991 L. Ron Hubbard Library

2001 Caroline Letkeman
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